Nyland1,2, A. Smith1, B. Pyle2, O. Mei-Dan3
1 University of Louisville Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Louisville, USA
2 Spalding University, Kosair Charities College of Health and Natural Sciences Louisville, USA
3 University of Colorado Sports Medicine and Performance Center, Colorado, USA
Background. Extreme sport participation occurs for many reasons. A commonality for many is the high risk of serious injury or death, particularly in association with mismanaged execution. Methods. This review describes a conceptual return to play decision-making model for extreme sport athletes based on considerations of ecological dynamics. Results. In guiding the extreme sport athlete through sport-specific training simu- lations and secondary injury prevention education, the rehabilitation clinician must develop a thorough understanding of the sport and the factors that contribute to their safe performance. Conclusions. The interaction of multiple factors including (but not limited to) experi- ence and skill level, personality, conditioning level, overall health and injury status and the injury risks associated with many extreme sports make return to play decision-mak- ing particularly difficult.
KEY WORDS: Return to play; adventure; sports; training; education.